# map

map f xs is the list obtained by applying f to each element of xs, i.e.,
```map f [x1, x2, ..., xn] == [f x1, f x2, ..., f xn]
map f [x1, x2, ...] == [f x1, f x2, ...]
```
Map a function over a NonEmpty stream.
Map each element of a structure to a monadic action, evaluate these actions from left to right, and collect the results. For a version that ignores the results see mapM_.
Map each element of a structure to a monadic action, evaluate these actions from left to right, and ignore the results. For a version that doesn't ignore the results see mapM. As of base 4.8.0.0, mapM_ is just traverse_, specialized to Monad.
An associative operation NOTE: This method is redundant and has the default implementation mappend = '(<>)' since base-4.11.0.0.
The mapAccumL function behaves like a combination of fmap and foldl; it applies a function to each element of a structure, passing an accumulating parameter from left to right, and returning a final value of this accumulator together with the new structure.
The mapAccumR function behaves like a combination of fmap and foldr; it applies a function to each element of a structure, passing an accumulating parameter from right to left, and returning a final value of this accumulator together with the new structure.
The mapMaybe function is a version of map which can throw out elements. In particular, the functional argument returns something of type Maybe b. If this is Nothing, no element is added on to the result list. If it is Just b, then b is included in the result list.

#### Examples

Using mapMaybe f x is a shortcut for catMaybes \$ map f x in most cases:
```>>> import Text.Read ( readMaybe )

>>> mapMaybe readMaybeInt ["1", "Foo", "3"]
[1,3]

>>> catMaybes \$ map readMaybeInt ["1", "Foo", "3"]
[1,3]
```
If we map the Just constructor, the entire list should be returned:
```>>> mapMaybe Just [1,2,3]
[1,2,3]
```
The mapAndUnzipM function maps its first argument over a list, returning the result as a pair of lists. This function is mainly used with complicated data structures or a state-transforming monad.
This function maps one exception into another as proposed in the paper "A semantics for imprecise exceptions".
The mapAccumL function behaves like a combination of map and foldl; it applies a function to each element of a list, passing an accumulating parameter from left to right, and returning a final value of this accumulator together with the new list.
The mapAccumR function behaves like a combination of map and foldr; it applies a function to each element of a list, passing an accumulating parameter from right to left, and returning a final value of this accumulator together with the new list.
Map a function over all the elements of a container and concatenate the resulting lists.
Map each element of the structure to a monoid, and combine the results.
Given a means of mapping the elements of a structure to lists, computes the concatenation of all such lists in order.
Combines the elements of a structure, given ways of mapping them to a common monoid.
```bifoldMap f g
≡ bifoldr (mappend . f) (mappend . g) mempty
```
Map over both arguments at the same time.
```bimap f g ≡ first f . second g
```

#### Examples

```>>> bimap toUpper (+1) ('j', 3)
('J',4)
```
```>>> bimap toUpper (+1) (Left 'j')
Left 'J'
```
```>>> bimap toUpper (+1) (Right 3)
Right 4
```
A default definition of bifoldMap in terms of the Bitraversable operations.
```bifoldMapDefault f g ≡
getConst . bitraverse (Const . f) (Const . g)
```
The bimapAccumL function behaves like a combination of bimap and bifoldl; it traverses a structure from left to right, threading a state of type a and using the given actions to compute new elements for the structure.
The bimapAccumR function behaves like a combination of bimap and bifoldl; it traverses a structure from right to left, threading a state of type a and using the given actions to compute new elements for the structure.
A default definition of bimap in terms of the Bitraversable operations.
```bimapDefault f g ≡
runIdentity . bitraverse (Identity . f) (Identity . g)
```
A generic monadic transformation that maps over the immediate subterms The default definition instantiates the type constructor c in the type of gfoldl to the monad datatype constructor, defining injection and projection using return and >>=.