{-# LANGUAGE CPP, ViewPatterns #-} module TcFlatten( FlattenMode(..), flatten, flattenManyNom, unflattenWanteds ) where #include "HsVersions.h" import GhcPrelude import TcRnTypes import TcType import Type import TcUnify( occCheckExpand ) import TcEvidence import TyCon import TyCoRep -- performs delicate algorithm on types import Coercion import Var import VarEnv import Outputable import TcSMonad as TcS import BasicTypes( SwapFlag(..) ) import Util import Bag import Pair import Control.Monad import MonadUtils ( zipWithAndUnzipM ) import GHC.Exts ( inline ) import Control.Arrow ( first ) {- Note [The flattening story] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ * A CFunEqCan is either of form [G] <F xis> : F xis ~ fsk -- fsk is a FlatSkolTv [W] x : F xis ~ fmv -- fmv is a FlatMetaTv where x is the witness variable xis are function-free fsk/fmv is a flatten skolem; it is always untouchable (level 0) * CFunEqCans can have any flavour: [G], [W], [WD] or [D] * KEY INSIGHTS: - A given flatten-skolem, fsk, is known a-priori to be equal to F xis (the LHS), with <F xis> evidence. The fsk is still a unification variable, but it is "owned" by its CFunEqCan, and is filled in (unflattened) only by unflattenGivens. - A unification flatten-skolem, fmv, stands for the as-yet-unknown type to which (F xis) will eventually reduce. It is filled in only by dischargeFmv. - All fsk/fmv variables are "untouchable". To make it simple to test, we simply give them TcLevel=0. This means that in a CTyVarEq, say, fmv ~ Int we NEVER unify fmv. - A unification flatten-skolems, fmv, ONLY gets unified when either a) The CFunEqCan takes a step, using an axiom b) By unflattenWanteds They are never unified in any other form of equality. For example [W] ffmv ~ Int is stuck; it does not unify with fmv. * We *never* substitute in the RHS (i.e. the fsk/fmv) of a CFunEqCan. That would destroy the invariant about the shape of a CFunEqCan, and it would risk wanted/wanted interactions. The only way we learn information about fsk is when the CFunEqCan takes a step. However we *do* substitute in the LHS of a CFunEqCan (else it would never get to fire!) * Unflattening: - We unflatten Givens when leaving their scope (see unflattenGivens) - We unflatten Wanteds at the end of each attempt to simplify the wanteds; see unflattenWanteds, called from solveSimpleWanteds. * Each canonical [G], [W], or [WD] CFunEqCan x : F xis ~ fsk/fmv has its own distinct evidence variable x and flatten-skolem fsk/fmv. Why? We make a fresh fsk/fmv when the constraint is born; and we never rewrite the RHS of a CFunEqCan. In contrast a [D] CFunEqCan shares its fmv with its partner [W], but does not "own" it. If we reduce a [D] F Int ~ fmv, where say type instance F Int = ty, then we don't discharge fmv := ty. Rather we simply generate [D] fmv ~ ty (in TcInteract.reduce_top_fun_eq) * Inert set invariant: if F xis1 ~ fsk1, F xis2 ~ fsk2 then xis1 /= xis2 i.e. at most one CFunEqCan with a particular LHS * Function applications can occur in the RHS of a CTyEqCan. No reason not allow this, and it reduces the amount of flattening that must occur. * Flattening a type (F xis): - If we are flattening in a Wanted/Derived constraint then create new [W] x : F xis ~ fmv else create new [G] x : F xis ~ fsk with fresh evidence variable x and flatten-skolem fsk/fmv - Add it to the work list - Replace (F xis) with fsk/fmv in the type you are flattening - You can also add the CFunEqCan to the "flat cache", which simply keeps track of all the function applications you have flattened. - If (F xis) is in the cache already, just use its fsk/fmv and evidence x, and emit nothing. - No need to substitute in the flat-cache. It's not the end of the world if we start with, say (F alpha ~ fmv1) and (F Int ~ fmv2) and then find alpha := Int. Athat will simply give rise to fmv1 := fmv2 via [Interacting rule] below * Canonicalising a CFunEqCan [G/W] x : F xis ~ fsk/fmv - Flatten xis (to substitute any tyvars; there are already no functions) cos :: xis ~ flat_xis - New wanted x2 :: F flat_xis ~ fsk/fmv - Add new wanted to flat cache - Discharge x = F cos ; x2 * [Interacting rule] (inert) [W] x1 : F tys ~ fmv1 (work item) [W] x2 : F tys ~ fmv2 Just solve one from the other: x2 := x1 fmv2 := fmv1 This just unites the two fsks into one. Always solve given from wanted if poss. * For top-level reductions, see Note [Top-level reductions for type functions] in TcInteract Why given-fsks, alone, doesn't work ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Could we get away with only flatten meta-tyvars, with no flatten-skolems? No. [W] w : alpha ~ [F alpha Int] ---> flatten w = ...w'... [W] w' : alpha ~ [fsk] [G] <F alpha Int> : F alpha Int ~ fsk --> unify (no occurs check) alpha := [fsk] But since fsk = F alpha Int, this is really an occurs check error. If that is all we know about alpha, we will succeed in constraint solving, producing a program with an infinite type. Even if we did finally get (g : fsk ~ Bool) by solving (F alpha Int ~ fsk) using axiom, zonking would not see it, so (x::alpha) sitting in the tree will get zonked to an infinite type. (Zonking always only does refl stuff.) Why flatten-meta-vars, alone doesn't work ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Look at Simple13, with unification-fmvs only [G] g : a ~ [F a] ---> Flatten given g' = g;[x] [G] g' : a ~ [fmv] [W] x : F a ~ fmv --> subst a in x g' = g;[x] x = F g' ; x2 [W] x2 : F [fmv] ~ fmv And now we have an evidence cycle between g' and x! If we used a given instead (ie current story) [G] g : a ~ [F a] ---> Flatten given g' = g;[x] [G] g' : a ~ [fsk] [G] <F a> : F a ~ fsk ---> Substitute for a [G] g' : a ~ [fsk] [G] F (sym g'); <F a> : F [fsk] ~ fsk Why is it right to treat fmv's differently to ordinary unification vars? ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ f :: forall a. a -> a -> Bool g :: F Int -> F Int -> Bool Consider f (x:Int) (y:Bool) This gives alpha~Int, alpha~Bool. There is an inconsistency, but really only one error. SherLoc may tell you which location is most likely, based on other occurrences of alpha. Consider g (x:Int) (y:Bool) Here we get (F Int ~ Int, F Int ~ Bool), which flattens to (fmv ~ Int, fmv ~ Bool) But there are really TWO separate errors. ** We must not complain about Int~Bool. ** Moreover these two errors could arise in entirely unrelated parts of the code. (In the alpha case, there must be *some* connection (eg v:alpha in common envt).) Note [Unflattening can force the solver to iterate] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Look at Trac #10340: type family Any :: * -- No instances get :: MonadState s m => m s instance MonadState s (State s) where ... foo :: State Any Any foo = get For 'foo' we instantiate 'get' at types mm ss [WD] MonadState ss mm, [WD] mm ss ~ State Any Any Flatten, and decompose [WD] MonadState ss mm, [WD] Any ~ fmv [WD] mm ~ State fmv, [WD] fmv ~ ss Unify mm := State fmv: [WD] MonadState ss (State fmv) [WD] Any ~ fmv, [WD] fmv ~ ss Now we are stuck; the instance does not match!! So unflatten: fmv := Any ss := Any (*) [WD] MonadState Any (State Any) The unification (*) represents progress, so we must do a second round of solving; this time it succeeds. This is done by the 'go' loop in solveSimpleWanteds. This story does not feel right but it's the best I can do; and the iteration only happens in pretty obscure circumstances. ************************************************************************ * * * Examples Here is a long series of examples I had to work through * * ************************************************************************ Simple20 ~~~~~~~~ axiom F [a] = [F a] [G] F [a] ~ a --> [G] fsk ~ a [G] [F a] ~ fsk (nc) --> [G] F a ~ fsk2 [G] fsk ~ [fsk2] [G] fsk ~ a --> [G] F a ~ fsk2 [G] a ~ [fsk2] [G] fsk ~ a ---------------------------------------- indexed-types/should_compile/T44984 [W] H (F Bool) ~ H alpha [W] alpha ~ F Bool --> F Bool ~ fmv0 H fmv0 ~ fmv1 H alpha ~ fmv2 fmv1 ~ fmv2 fmv0 ~ alpha flatten ~~~~~~~ fmv0 := F Bool fmv1 := H (F Bool) fmv2 := H alpha alpha := F Bool plus fmv1 ~ fmv2 But these two are equal under the above assumptions. Solve by Refl. --- under plan B, namely solve fmv1:=fmv2 eagerly --- [W] H (F Bool) ~ H alpha [W] alpha ~ F Bool --> F Bool ~ fmv0 H fmv0 ~ fmv1 H alpha ~ fmv2 fmv1 ~ fmv2 fmv0 ~ alpha --> F Bool ~ fmv0 H fmv0 ~ fmv1 H alpha ~ fmv2 fmv2 := fmv1 fmv0 ~ alpha flatten fmv0 := F Bool fmv1 := H fmv0 = H (F Bool) retain H alpha ~ fmv2 because fmv2 has been filled alpha := F Bool ---------------------------- indexed-types/should_failt/T4179 after solving [W] fmv_1 ~ fmv_2 [W] A3 (FCon x) ~ fmv_1 (CFunEqCan) [W] A3 (x (aoa -> fmv_2)) ~ fmv_2 (CFunEqCan) ---------------------------------------- indexed-types/should_fail/T7729a a) [W] BasePrimMonad (Rand m) ~ m1 b) [W] tt m1 ~ BasePrimMonad (Rand m) ---> process (b) first BasePrimMonad (Ramd m) ~ fmv_atH fmv_atH ~ tt m1 ---> now process (a) m1 ~ s_atH ~ tt m1 -- An obscure occurs check ---------------------------------------- typecheck/TcTypeNatSimple Original constraint [W] x + y ~ x + alpha (non-canonical) ==> [W] x + y ~ fmv1 (CFunEqCan) [W] x + alpha ~ fmv2 (CFuneqCan) [W] fmv1 ~ fmv2 (CTyEqCan) (sigh) ---------------------------------------- indexed-types/should_fail/GADTwrong1 [G] Const a ~ () ==> flatten [G] fsk ~ () work item: Const a ~ fsk ==> fire top rule [G] fsk ~ () work item fsk ~ () Surely the work item should rewrite to () ~ ()? Well, maybe not; it'a very special case. More generally, our givens look like F a ~ Int, where (F a) is not reducible. ---------------------------------------- indexed_types/should_fail/T8227: Why using a different can-rewrite rule in CFunEqCan heads does not work. Assuming NOT rewriting wanteds with wanteds Inert: [W] fsk_aBh ~ fmv_aBk -> fmv_aBk [W] fmv_aBk ~ fsk_aBh [G] Scalar fsk_aBg ~ fsk_aBh [G] V a ~ f_aBg Worklist includes [W] Scalar fmv_aBi ~ fmv_aBk fmv_aBi, fmv_aBk are flatten unification variables Work item: [W] V fsk_aBh ~ fmv_aBi Note that the inert wanteds are cyclic, because we do not rewrite wanteds with wanteds. Then we go into a loop when normalise the work-item, because we use rewriteOrSame on the argument of V. Conclusion: Don't make canRewrite context specific; instead use [W] a ~ ty to rewrite a wanted iff 'a' is a unification variable. ---------------------------------------- Here is a somewhat similar case: type family G a :: * blah :: (G a ~ Bool, Eq (G a)) => a -> a blah = error "urk" foo x = blah x For foo we get [W] Eq (G a), G a ~ Bool Flattening [W] G a ~ fmv, Eq fmv, fmv ~ Bool We can't simplify away the Eq Bool unless we substitute for fmv. Maybe that doesn't matter: we would still be left with unsolved G a ~ Bool. -------------------------- Trac #9318 has a very simple program leading to [W] F Int ~ Int [W] F Int ~ Bool We don't want to get "Error Int~Bool". But if fmv's can rewrite wanteds, we will [W] fmv ~ Int [W] fmv ~ Bool ---> [W] Int ~ Bool ************************************************************************ * * * FlattenEnv & FlatM * The flattening environment & monad * * ************************************************************************ -} type FlatWorkListRef = TcRef [Ct] -- See Note [The flattening work list] data FlattenEnv = FE { fe_mode :: FlattenMode , fe_loc :: CtLoc -- See Note [Flattener CtLoc] , fe_flavour :: CtFlavour , fe_eq_rel :: EqRel -- See Note [Flattener EqRels] , fe_work :: FlatWorkListRef } -- See Note [The flattening work list] data FlattenMode -- Postcondition for all three: inert wrt the type substitution = FM_FlattenAll -- Postcondition: function-free | FM_SubstOnly -- See Note [Flattening under a forall] -- | FM_Avoid TcTyVar Bool -- See Note [Lazy flattening] -- -- Postcondition: -- -- * tyvar is only mentioned in result under a rigid path -- -- e.g. [a] is ok, but F a won't happen -- -- * If flat_top is True, top level is not a function application -- -- (but under type constructors is ok e.g. [F a]) instance Outputable FlattenMode where ppr FM_FlattenAll = text "FM_FlattenAll" ppr FM_SubstOnly = text "FM_SubstOnly" eqFlattenMode :: FlattenMode -> FlattenMode -> Bool eqFlattenMode FM_FlattenAll FM_FlattenAll = True eqFlattenMode FM_SubstOnly FM_SubstOnly = True -- FM_Avoid tv1 b1 `eq` FM_Avoid tv2 b2 = tv1 == tv2 && b1 == b2 eqFlattenMode _ _ = False mkFlattenEnv :: FlattenMode -> CtEvidence -> FlatWorkListRef -> FlattenEnv mkFlattenEnv fm ctev ref = FE { fe_mode = fm , fe_loc = ctEvLoc ctev , fe_flavour = ctEvFlavour ctev , fe_eq_rel = ctEvEqRel ctev , fe_work = ref } -- | The 'FlatM' monad is a wrapper around 'TcS' with the following -- extra capabilities: (1) it offers access to a 'FlattenEnv'; -- and (2) it maintains the flattening worklist. -- See Note [The flattening work list]. newtype FlatM a = FlatM { runFlatM :: FlattenEnv -> TcS a } instance Monad FlatM where m >>= k = FlatM $ \env -> do { a <- runFlatM m env ; runFlatM (k a) env } instance Functor FlatM where fmap = liftM instance Applicative FlatM where pure x = FlatM $ const (pure x) (<*>) = ap liftTcS :: TcS a -> FlatM a liftTcS thing_inside = FlatM $ const thing_inside emitFlatWork :: Ct -> FlatM () -- See Note [The flattening work list] emitFlatWork ct = FlatM $ \env -> updTcRef (fe_work env) (ct :) runFlatten :: FlattenMode -> CtEvidence -> FlatM a -> TcS a -- Run thing_inside (which does flattening), and put all -- the work it generates onto the main work list -- See Note [The flattening work list] -- NB: The returned evidence is always the same as the original, but with -- perhaps a new CtLoc runFlatten mode ev thing_inside = do { flat_ref <- newTcRef [] ; let fmode = mkFlattenEnv mode ev flat_ref ; res <- runFlatM thing_inside fmode ; new_flats <- readTcRef flat_ref ; updWorkListTcS (add_flats new_flats) ; return res } where add_flats new_flats wl = wl { wl_funeqs = add_funeqs new_flats (wl_funeqs wl) } add_funeqs [] wl = wl add_funeqs (f:fs) wl = add_funeqs fs (f:wl) -- add_funeqs fs ws = reverse fs ++ ws -- e.g. add_funeqs [f1,f2,f3] [w1,w2,w3,w4] -- = [f3,f2,f1,w1,w2,w3,w4] traceFlat :: String -> SDoc -> FlatM () traceFlat herald doc = liftTcS $ traceTcS herald doc getFlatEnvField :: (FlattenEnv -> a) -> FlatM a getFlatEnvField accessor = FlatM $ \env -> return (accessor env) getEqRel :: FlatM EqRel getEqRel = getFlatEnvField fe_eq_rel getRole :: FlatM Role getRole = eqRelRole <$> getEqRel getFlavour :: FlatM CtFlavour getFlavour = getFlatEnvField fe_flavour getFlavourRole :: FlatM CtFlavourRole getFlavourRole = do { flavour <- getFlavour ; eq_rel <- getEqRel ; return (flavour, eq_rel) } getMode :: FlatM FlattenMode getMode = getFlatEnvField fe_mode getLoc :: FlatM CtLoc getLoc = getFlatEnvField fe_loc checkStackDepth :: Type -> FlatM () checkStackDepth ty = do { loc <- getLoc ; liftTcS $ checkReductionDepth loc ty } -- | Change the 'EqRel' in a 'FlatM'. setEqRel :: EqRel -> FlatM a -> FlatM a setEqRel new_eq_rel thing_inside = FlatM $ \env -> if new_eq_rel == fe_eq_rel env then runFlatM thing_inside env else runFlatM thing_inside (env { fe_eq_rel = new_eq_rel }) -- | Change the 'FlattenMode' in a 'FlattenEnv'. setMode :: FlattenMode -> FlatM a -> FlatM a setMode new_mode thing_inside = FlatM $ \env -> if new_mode `eqFlattenMode` fe_mode env then runFlatM thing_inside env else runFlatM thing_inside (env { fe_mode = new_mode }) -- | Use when flattening kinds/kind coercions. See -- Note [No derived kind equalities] flattenKinds :: FlatM a -> FlatM a flattenKinds thing_inside = FlatM $ \env -> let kind_flav = case fe_flavour env of Given -> Given _ -> Wanted WDeriv in runFlatM thing_inside (env { fe_eq_rel = NomEq, fe_flavour = kind_flav }) bumpDepth :: FlatM a -> FlatM a bumpDepth (FlatM thing_inside) = FlatM $ \env -> do { let env' = env { fe_loc = bumpCtLocDepth (fe_loc env) } ; thing_inside env' } {- Note [The flattening work list] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The "flattening work list", held in the fe_work field of FlattenEnv, is a list of CFunEqCans generated during flattening. The key idea is this. Consider flattening (Eq (F (G Int) (H Bool)): * The flattener recursively calls itself on sub-terms before building the main term, so it will encounter the terms in order G Int H Bool F (G Int) (H Bool) flattening to sub-goals w1: G Int ~ fuv0 w2: H Bool ~ fuv1 w3: F fuv0 fuv1 ~ fuv2 * Processing w3 first is BAD, because we can't reduce i t,so it'll get put into the inert set, and later kicked out when w1, w2 are solved. In Trac #9872 this led to inert sets containing hundreds of suspended calls. * So we want to process w1, w2 first. * So you might think that we should just use a FIFO deque for the work-list, so that putting adding goals in order w1,w2,w3 would mean we processed w1 first. * BUT suppose we have 'type instance G Int = H Char'. Then processing w1 leads to a new goal w4: H Char ~ fuv0 We do NOT want to put that on the far end of a deque! Instead we want to put it at the *front* of the work-list so that we continue to work on it. So the work-list structure is this: * The wl_funeqs (in TcS) is a LIFO stack; we push new goals (such as w4) on top (extendWorkListFunEq), and take new work from the top (selectWorkItem). * When flattening, emitFlatWork pushes new flattening goals (like w1,w2,w3) onto the flattening work list, fe_work, another push-down stack. * When we finish flattening, we *reverse* the fe_work stack onto the wl_funeqs stack (which brings w1 to the top). The function runFlatten initialises the fe_work stack, and reverses it onto wl_fun_eqs at the end. Note [Flattener EqRels] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ When flattening, we need to know which equality relation -- nominal or representation -- we should be respecting. The only difference is that we rewrite variables by representational equalities when fe_eq_rel is ReprEq, and that we unwrap newtypes when flattening w.r.t. representational equality. Note [Flattener CtLoc] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The flattener does eager type-family reduction. Type families might loop, and we don't want GHC to do so. A natural solution is to have a bounded depth to these processes. A central difficulty is that such a solution isn't quite compositional. For example, say it takes F Int 10 steps to get to Bool. How many steps does it take to get from F Int -> F Int to Bool -> Bool? 10? 20? What about getting from Const Char (F Int) to Char? 11? 1? Hard to know and hard to track. So, we punt, essentially. We store a CtLoc in the FlattenEnv and just update the environment when recurring. In the TyConApp case, where there may be multiple type families to flatten, we just copy the current CtLoc into each branch. If any branch hits the stack limit, then the whole thing fails. A consequence of this is that setting the stack limits appropriately will be essentially impossible. So, the official recommendation if a stack limit is hit is to disable the check entirely. Otherwise, there will be baffling, unpredictable errors. Note [Lazy flattening] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The idea of FM_Avoid mode is to flatten less aggressively. If we have a ~ [F Int] there seems to be no great merit in lifting out (F Int). But if it was a ~ [G a Int] then we *do* want to lift it out, in case (G a Int) reduces to Bool, say, which gets rid of the occurs-check problem. (For the flat_top Bool, see comments above and at call sites.) HOWEVER, the lazy flattening actually seems to make type inference go *slower*, not faster. perf/compiler/T3064 is a case in point; it gets *dramatically* worse with FM_Avoid. I think it may be because floating the types out means we normalise them, and that often makes them smaller and perhaps allows more re-use of previously solved goals. But to be honest I'm not absolutely certain, so I am leaving FM_Avoid in the code base. What I'm removing is the unique place where it is *used*, namely in TcCanonical.canEqTyVar. See also Note [Conservative unification check] in TcUnify, which gives other examples where lazy flattening caused problems. Bottom line: FM_Avoid is unused for now (Nov 14). Note: T5321Fun got faster when I disabled FM_Avoid T5837 did too, but it's pathalogical anyway Note [Phantoms in the flattener] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Suppose we have data Proxy p = Proxy and we're flattening (Proxy ty) w.r.t. ReprEq. Then, we know that `ty` is really irrelevant -- it will be ignored when solving for representational equality later on. So, we omit flattening `ty` entirely. This may violate the expectation of "xi"s for a bit, but the canonicaliser will soon throw out the phantoms when decomposing a TyConApp. (Or, the canonicaliser will emit an insoluble, in which case the unflattened version yields a better error message anyway.) Note [No derived kind equalities] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ We call flattenKinds in two places: in flatten_co (Note [Flattening coercions]) and in flattenTyVar. The latter case is easier to understand; flattenKinds is used to flatten the kind of a flat (i.e. inert) tyvar. Flattening a kind naturally produces a coercion. This coercion is then used in the flattened type. However, danger lurks if the flattening flavour (that is, the fe_flavour of the FlattenEnv) is Derived: the coercion might be bottom. (This can happen when looks up a kindvar in the inert set only to find a Derived equality, with no coercion.) The solution is simple: ensure that the fe_flavour is not derived when flattening a kind. This is what flattenKinds does. -} {- ********************************************************************* * * * Externally callable flattening functions * * * * They are all wrapped in runFlatten, so their * * flattening work gets put into the work list * * * ********************************************************************* -} flatten :: FlattenMode -> CtEvidence -> TcType -> TcS (Xi, TcCoercion) flatten mode ev ty = do { traceTcS "flatten {" (ppr mode <+> ppr ty) ; (ty', co) <- runFlatten mode ev (flatten_one ty) ; traceTcS "flatten }" (ppr ty') ; return (ty', co) } flattenManyNom :: CtEvidence -> [TcType] -> TcS ([Xi], [TcCoercion]) -- Externally-callable, hence runFlatten -- Flatten a bunch of types all at once; in fact they are -- always the arguments of a saturated type-family, so -- ctEvFlavour ev = Nominal -- and we want to flatten all at nominal role flattenManyNom ev tys = do { traceTcS "flatten_many {" (vcat (map ppr tys)) ; (tys', cos) <- runFlatten FM_FlattenAll ev (flatten_many_nom tys) ; traceTcS "flatten }" (vcat (map ppr tys')) ; return (tys', cos) } {- ********************************************************************* * * * The main flattening functions * * ********************************************************************* -} {- Note [Flattening] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ flatten ty ==> (xi, co) where xi has no type functions, unless they appear under ForAlls has no skolems that are mapped in the inert set has no filled-in metavariables co :: xi ~ ty Note that it is flatten's job to flatten *every type function it sees*. flatten is only called on *arguments* to type functions, by canEqGiven. Flattening also: * zonks, removing any metavariables, and * applies the substitution embodied in the inert set Because flattening zonks and the returned coercion ("co" above) is also zonked, it's possible that (co :: xi ~ ty) isn't quite true. So, instead, we can rely on these facts: (F1) typeKind(xi) succeeds and returns a fully zonked kind (F2) co :: xi ~ zonk(ty) Note that the left-hand type of co is *always* precisely xi. The right-hand type may or may not be ty, however: if ty has unzonked filled-in metavariables, then the right-hand type of co will be the zonked version of ty. It is for this reason that we occasionally have to explicitly zonk, when (co :: xi ~ ty) is important even before we zonk the whole program. For example, see the FTRNotFollowed case in flattenTyVar. Why have these invariants on flattening? Really, they're both to ensure invariant (F1), which is a Good Thing because we sometimes use typeKind during canonicalisation, and we want this kind to be zonked (e.g., see TcCanonical.homogeniseRhsKind). Invariant (F2) is needed solely to support (F1). It is relied on in one place: - The FTRNotFollowed case in flattenTyVar. Here, we have a tyvar that cannot be reduced any further (that is, no equality over the tyvar is in the inert set such that the inert equality can rewrite the constraint at hand, and it is not a filled-in metavariable). But its kind might still not be flat, if it mentions a type family or a variable that can be rewritten. Flattened types have flattened kinds (see below), so we must flatten the kind. Here is an example: let kappa be a filled-in metavariable such that kappa := k. [G] co :: k ~ Type We are flattening a :: kappa where a is a skolem. We end up in the FTRNotFollowed case, but we need to flatten the kind kappa. Flattening kappa yields (Type, kind_co), where kind_co :: Type ~ k. Note that the right-hand type of kind_co is *not* kappa, because (F1) tells us it's zonk(kappa), which is k. Now, we return (a |> sym kind_co). If we are to uphold (F1), then the right-hand type of (sym kind_co) had better be fully zonked. In other words, the left-hand type of kind_co needs to be zonked... which is precisely what (F2) guarantees. In order to support (F2), we require that ctEvCoercion, when called on a zonked CtEvidence, always returns a zonked coercion. See Note [Given in ctEvCoercion]. This requirement comes into play in flatten_tyvar2. (I suppose we could move the logic from ctEvCoercion to flatten_tyvar2, but it's much easier to do in ctEvCoercion.) Flattening a type also means flattening its kind. In the case of a type variable whose kind mentions a type family, this might mean that the result of flattening has a cast in it. Recall that in comments we use alpha[flat = ty] to represent a flattening skolem variable alpha which has been generated to stand in for ty. ----- Example of flattening a constraint: ------ flatten (List (F (G Int))) ==> (xi, cc) where xi = List alpha cc = { G Int ~ beta[flat = G Int], F beta ~ alpha[flat = F beta] } Here * alpha and beta are 'flattening skolem variables'. * All the constraints in cc are 'given', and all their coercion terms are the identity. NB: Flattening Skolems only occur in canonical constraints, which are never zonked, so we don't need to worry about zonking doing accidental unflattening. Note that we prefer to leave type synonyms unexpanded when possible, so when the flattener encounters one, it first asks whether its transitive expansion contains any type function applications. If so, it expands the synonym and proceeds; if not, it simply returns the unexpanded synonym. Note [flatten_many performance] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ In programs with lots of type-level evaluation, flatten_many becomes part of a tight loop. For example, see test perf/compiler/T9872a, which calls flatten_many a whopping 7,106,808 times. It is thus important that flatten_many be efficient. Performance testing showed that the current implementation is indeed efficient. It's critically important that zipWithAndUnzipM be specialized to TcS, and it's also quite helpful to actually `inline` it. On test T9872a, here are the allocation stats (Dec 16, 2014): * Unspecialized, uninlined: 8,472,613,440 bytes allocated in the heap * Specialized, uninlined: 6,639,253,488 bytes allocated in the heap * Specialized, inlined: 6,281,539,792 bytes allocated in the heap To improve performance even further, flatten_many_nom is split off from flatten_many, as nominal equality is the common case. This would be natural to write using mapAndUnzipM, but even inlined, that function is not as performant as a hand-written loop. * mapAndUnzipM, inlined: 7,463,047,432 bytes allocated in the heap * hand-written recursion: 5,848,602,848 bytes allocated in the heap If you make any change here, pay close attention to the T9872{a,b,c} tests and T5321Fun. If we need to make this yet more performant, a possible way forward is to duplicate the flattener code for the nominal case, and make that case faster. This doesn't seem quite worth it, yet. -} flatten_many :: [Role] -> [Type] -> FlatM ([Xi], [Coercion]) -- Coercions :: Xi ~ Type, at roles given -- Returns True iff (no flattening happened) -- NB: The EvVar inside the 'fe_ev :: CtEvidence' is unused, -- we merely want (a) Given/Solved/Derived/Wanted info -- (b) the GivenLoc/WantedLoc for when we create new evidence flatten_many roles tys -- See Note [flatten_many performance] = inline zipWithAndUnzipM go roles tys where go Nominal ty = setEqRel NomEq $ flatten_one ty go Representational ty = setEqRel ReprEq $ flatten_one ty go Phantom ty = -- See Note [Phantoms in the flattener] do { ty <- liftTcS $ zonkTcType ty ; return ( ty, mkReflCo Phantom ty ) } -- | Like 'flatten_many', but assumes that every role is nominal. flatten_many_nom :: [Type] -> FlatM ([Xi], [Coercion]) flatten_many_nom [] = return ([], []) -- See Note [flatten_many performance] flatten_many_nom (ty:tys) = do { (xi, co) <- flatten_one ty ; (xis, cos) <- flatten_many_nom tys ; return (xi:xis, co:cos) } ------------------ flatten_one :: TcType -> FlatM (Xi, Coercion) -- Flatten a type to get rid of type function applications, returning -- the new type-function-free type, and a collection of new equality -- constraints. See Note [Flattening] for more detail. -- -- Postcondition: Coercion :: Xi ~ TcType -- The role on the result coercion matches the EqRel in the FlattenEnv flatten_one xi@(LitTy {}) = do { role <- getRole ; return (xi, mkReflCo role xi) } flatten_one (TyVarTy tv) = flattenTyVar tv flatten_one (AppTy ty1 ty2) = do { (xi1,co1) <- flatten_one ty1 ; eq_rel <- getEqRel ; case (eq_rel, nextRole xi1) of -- We need nextRole here because although ty1 definitely -- isn't a TyConApp, xi1 might be. -- ToDo: but can such a substitution change roles?? (NomEq, _) -> flatten_rhs xi1 co1 NomEq (ReprEq, Nominal) -> flatten_rhs xi1 co1 NomEq (ReprEq, Representational) -> flatten_rhs xi1 co1 ReprEq (ReprEq, Phantom) -> -- See Note [Phantoms in the flattener] do { ty2 <- liftTcS $ zonkTcType ty2 ; return ( mkAppTy xi1 ty2 , mkAppCo co1 (mkNomReflCo ty2)) } } where flatten_rhs xi1 co1 eq_rel2 = do { (xi2,co2) <- setEqRel eq_rel2 $ flatten_one ty2 ; role1 <- getRole ; let role2 = eqRelRole eq_rel2 ; traceFlat "flatten/appty" (ppr ty1 $$ ppr ty2 $$ ppr xi1 $$ ppr xi2 $$ ppr role1 $$ ppr role2) ; return ( mkAppTy xi1 xi2 , mkTransAppCo role1 co1 xi1 ty1 role2 co2 xi2 ty2 role1 ) } -- output should match fmode flatten_one (TyConApp tc tys) -- Expand type synonyms that mention type families -- on the RHS; see Note [Flattening synonyms] | Just (tenv, rhs, tys') <- expandSynTyCon_maybe tc tys , let expanded_ty = mkAppTys (substTy (mkTvSubstPrs tenv) rhs) tys' = do { mode <- getMode ; case mode of FM_FlattenAll | not (isFamFreeTyCon tc) -> flatten_one expanded_ty _ -> flatten_ty_con_app tc tys } -- Otherwise, it's a type function application, and we have to -- flatten it away as well, and generate a new given equality constraint -- between the application and a newly generated flattening skolem variable. | isTypeFamilyTyCon tc = flatten_fam_app tc tys -- For * a normal data type application -- * data family application -- we just recursively flatten the arguments. | otherwise -- FM_Avoid stuff commented out; see Note [Lazy flattening] -- , let fmode' = case fmode of -- Switch off the flat_top bit in FM_Avoid -- FE { fe_mode = FM_Avoid tv _ } -- -> fmode { fe_mode = FM_Avoid tv False } -- _ -> fmode = flatten_ty_con_app tc tys flatten_one (FunTy ty1 ty2) = do { (xi1,co1) <- flatten_one ty1 ; (xi2,co2) <- flatten_one ty2 ; role <- getRole ; return (mkFunTy xi1 xi2, mkFunCo role co1 co2) } flatten_one ty@(ForAllTy {}) -- TODO (RAE): This is inadequate, as it doesn't flatten the kind of -- the bound tyvar. Doing so will require carrying around a substitution -- and the usual substTyVarBndr-like silliness. Argh. -- We allow for-alls when, but only when, no type function -- applications inside the forall involve the bound type variables. = do { let (bndrs, rho) = splitForAllTyVarBndrs ty tvs = binderVars bndrs ; (rho', co) <- setMode FM_SubstOnly $ flatten_one rho -- Substitute only under a forall -- See Note [Flattening under a forall] ; return (mkForAllTys bndrs rho', mkHomoForAllCos tvs co) } flatten_one (CastTy ty g) = do { (xi, co) <- flatten_one ty ; (g', _) <- flatten_co g ; return (mkCastTy xi g', castCoercionKind co g' g) } flatten_one (CoercionTy co) = first mkCoercionTy <$> flatten_co co -- | "Flatten" a coercion. Really, just flatten the types that it coerces -- between and then use transitivity. See Note [Flattening coercions] flatten_co :: Coercion -> FlatM (Coercion, Coercion) flatten_co co = do { co <- liftTcS $ zonkCo co -- see Note [Zonking when flattening a coercion] ; let (Pair ty1 ty2, role) = coercionKindRole co ; (co1, co2) <- flattenKinds $ do { (_, co1) <- flatten_one ty1 ; (_, co2) <- flatten_one ty2 ; return (co1, co2) } ; let co' = downgradeRole role Nominal co1 `mkTransCo` co `mkTransCo` mkSymCo (downgradeRole role Nominal co2) -- kco :: (ty1' ~r ty2') ~N (ty1 ~r ty2) kco = mkTyConAppCo Nominal (equalityTyCon role) [ mkKindCo co1, mkKindCo co2, co1, co2 ] ; traceFlat "flatten_co" (vcat [ ppr co, ppr co1, ppr co2, ppr co' ]) ; env_role <- getRole ; return (co', mkProofIrrelCo env_role kco co' co) } flatten_ty_con_app :: TyCon -> [TcType] -> FlatM (Xi, Coercion) flatten_ty_con_app tc tys = do { eq_rel <- getEqRel ; let role = eqRelRole eq_rel ; (xis, cos) <- case eq_rel of NomEq -> flatten_many_nom tys ReprEq -> flatten_many (tyConRolesRepresentational tc) tys ; return (mkTyConApp tc xis, mkTyConAppCo role tc cos) } {- Note [Flattening coercions] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Because a flattened type has a flattened kind, we also must "flatten" coercions as we walk through a type. Otherwise, the "from" type of the coercion might not match the (now flattened) kind of the type that it's casting. flatten_co does the work, taking a coercion of type (ty1 ~ ty2) and flattening it to have type (fty1 ~ fty2), where flatten(ty1) = fty1 and flatten(ty2) = fty2. In other words: If r1 is a role co :: s ~r1 t flatten_co co = (fco, kco) r2 is the role in the FlatM then fco :: fs ~r1 ft fs, ft are flattened types kco :: fco ~r2 co The second return value of flatten_co is always a ProofIrrelCo. As such, it doesn't contain any information the caller doesn't have and might not be necessary in whatever comes next. Note that a flattened coercion might have unzonked metavariables or type functions in it -- but its *kind* will not. Instead of just flattening the kinds and using mkTransCo, we could actually flatten the coercion structurally. But doing so seems harder than simply flattening the types. Note [Zonking when flattening a coercion] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The first step in flatten_co (see Note [Flattening coercions]) is to zonk the input. This is necessary because we want to ensure the following invariants (c.f. the invariants (F1) and (F2) in Note [Flattening]) If (co', kco) <- flatten_co co Then (FC1) coercionKind(co') succeeds and produces a fully zonked pair of kinds (FC2) kco :: co' ~ zonk(co) We must zonk to ensure (1). This is because fco is built by using mkTransCo to build up on the input co. But if the only action that happens during flattening ty1 and ty2 is to zonk metavariables, the coercions returned (co1 and co2) will be reflexive. The mkTransCo calls will drop the reflexive coercions and co' will be the same as co -- with unzonked kinds. These invariants are necessary to uphold (F1) and (F2) in the CastTy and CoercionTy cases. We zonk right at the beginning to avoid duplicating work when flattening the ty1 and ty2. Note [Flattening synonyms] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Not expanding synonyms aggressively improves error messages, and keeps types smaller. But we need to take care. Suppose type T a = a -> a and we want to flatten the type (T (F a)). Then we can safely flatten the (F a) to a skolem, and return (T fsk). We don't need to expand the synonym. This works because TcTyConAppCo can deal with synonyms (unlike TyConAppCo), see Note [TcCoercions] in TcEvidence. But (Trac #8979) for type T a = (F a, a) where F is a type function we must expand the synonym in (say) T Int, to expose the type function to the flattener. Note [Flattening under a forall] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Under a forall, we (a) MUST apply the inert substitution (b) MUST NOT flatten type family applications Hence FMSubstOnly. For (a) consider c ~ a, a ~ T (forall b. (b, [c])) If we don't apply the c~a substitution to the second constraint we won't see the occurs-check error. For (b) consider (a ~ forall b. F a b), we don't want to flatten to (a ~ forall b.fsk, F a b ~ fsk) because now the 'b' has escaped its scope. We'd have to flatten to (a ~ forall b. fsk b, forall b. F a b ~ fsk b) and we have not begun to think about how to make that work! ************************************************************************ * * Flattening a type-family application * * ************************************************************************ -} flatten_fam_app :: TyCon -> [TcType] -> FlatM (Xi, Coercion) -- flatten_fam_app can be over-saturated -- flatten_exact_fam_app is exactly saturated -- flatten_exact_fam_app_fully lifts out the application to top level -- Postcondition: Coercion :: Xi ~ F tys flatten_fam_app tc tys -- Can be over-saturated = ASSERT2( tys `lengthAtLeast` tyConArity tc , ppr tc $$ ppr (tyConArity tc) $$ ppr tys) -- Type functions are saturated -- The type function might be *over* saturated -- in which case the remaining arguments should -- be dealt with by AppTys do { let (tys1, tys_rest) = splitAt (tyConArity tc) tys ; (xi1, co1) <- flatten_exact_fam_app tc tys1 -- co1 :: xi1 ~ F tys1 -- all Nominal roles b/c the tycon is oversaturated ; (xis_rest, cos_rest) <- flatten_many (repeat Nominal) tys_rest -- cos_res :: xis_rest ~ tys_rest ; return ( mkAppTys xi1 xis_rest -- NB mkAppTys: rhs_xi might not be a type variable -- cf Trac #5655 , mkAppCos co1 cos_rest -- (rhs_xi :: F xis) ; (F cos :: F xis ~ F tys) ) } flatten_exact_fam_app, flatten_exact_fam_app_fully :: TyCon -> [TcType] -> FlatM (Xi, Coercion) flatten_exact_fam_app tc tys = do { mode <- getMode ; role <- getRole ; case mode of -- These roles are always going to be Nominal for now, -- but not if #8177 is implemented FM_SubstOnly -> do { let roles = tyConRolesX role tc ; (xis, cos) <- flatten_many roles tys ; return ( mkTyConApp tc xis , mkTyConAppCo role tc cos ) } FM_FlattenAll -> flatten_exact_fam_app_fully tc tys } -- FM_Avoid tv flat_top -> -- do { (xis, cos) <- flatten_many fmode roles tys -- ; if flat_top || tv `elemVarSet` tyCoVarsOfTypes xis -- then flatten_exact_fam_app_fully fmode tc tys -- else return ( mkTyConApp tc xis -- , mkTcTyConAppCo (feRole fmode) tc cos ) } flatten_exact_fam_app_fully tc tys -- See Note [Reduce type family applications eagerly] = try_to_reduce tc tys False id $ do { -- First, flatten the arguments ; (xis, cos) <- setEqRel NomEq $ flatten_many_nom tys ; eq_rel <- getEqRel ; cur_flav <- getFlavour ; let role = eqRelRole eq_rel ret_co = mkTyConAppCo role tc cos -- ret_co :: F xis ~ F tys -- Now, look in the cache ; mb_ct <- liftTcS $ lookupFlatCache tc xis ; case mb_ct of Just (co, rhs_ty, flav) -- co :: F xis ~ fsk -- flav is [G] or [WD] -- See Note [Type family equations] in TcSMonad | (NotSwapped, _) <- flav `funEqCanDischargeF` cur_flav -> -- Usable hit in the flat-cache do { traceFlat "flatten/flat-cache hit" $ (ppr tc <+> ppr xis $$ ppr rhs_ty) ; (fsk_xi, fsk_co) <- flatten_one rhs_ty -- The fsk may already have been unified, so flatten it -- fsk_co :: fsk_xi ~ fsk ; return ( fsk_xi , fsk_co `mkTransCo` maybeSubCo eq_rel (mkSymCo co) `mkTransCo` ret_co ) } -- :: fsk_xi ~ F xis -- Try to reduce the family application right now -- See Note [Reduce type family applications eagerly] _ -> try_to_reduce tc xis True (`mkTransCo` ret_co) $ do { loc <- getLoc ; (ev, co, fsk) <- liftTcS $ newFlattenSkolem cur_flav loc tc xis -- The new constraint (F xis ~ fsk) is not necessarily inert -- (e.g. the LHS may be a redex) so we must put it in the work list ; let ct = CFunEqCan { cc_ev = ev , cc_fun = tc , cc_tyargs = xis , cc_fsk = fsk } ; emitFlatWork ct ; traceFlat "flatten/flat-cache miss" $ (ppr tc <+> ppr xis $$ ppr fsk $$ ppr ev) -- NB: fsk's kind is already flattend because -- the xis are flattened ; return (mkTyVarTy fsk, maybeSubCo eq_rel (mkSymCo co) `mkTransCo` ret_co ) } } where try_to_reduce :: TyCon -- F, family tycon -> [Type] -- args, not necessarily flattened -> Bool -- add to the flat cache? -> ( Coercion -- :: xi ~ F args -> Coercion ) -- what to return from outer function -> FlatM (Xi, Coercion) -- continuation upon failure -> FlatM (Xi, Coercion) try_to_reduce tc tys cache update_co k = do { checkStackDepth (mkTyConApp tc tys) ; mb_match <- liftTcS $ matchFam tc tys ; case mb_match of Just (norm_co, norm_ty) -> do { traceFlat "Eager T.F. reduction success" $ vcat [ ppr tc, ppr tys, ppr norm_ty , ppr norm_co <+> dcolon <+> ppr (coercionKind norm_co) , ppr cache] ; (xi, final_co) <- bumpDepth $ flatten_one norm_ty ; eq_rel <- getEqRel ; let co = maybeSubCo eq_rel norm_co `mkTransCo` mkSymCo final_co ; flavour <- getFlavour -- NB: only extend cache with nominal equalities ; when (cache && eq_rel == NomEq) $ liftTcS $ extendFlatCache tc tys ( co, xi, flavour ) ; return ( xi, update_co $ mkSymCo co ) } Nothing -> k } {- Note [Reduce type family applications eagerly] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ If we come across a type-family application like (Append (Cons x Nil) t), then, rather than flattening to a skolem etc, we may as well just reduce it on the spot to (Cons x t). This saves a lot of intermediate steps. Examples that are helped are tests T9872, and T5321Fun. Performance testing indicates that it's best to try this *twice*, once before flattening arguments and once after flattening arguments. Adding the extra reduction attempt before flattening arguments cut the allocation amounts for the T9872{a,b,c} tests by half. An example of where the early reduction appears helpful: type family Last x where Last '[x] = x Last (h ': t) = Last t workitem: (x ~ Last '[1,2,3,4,5,6]) Flattening the argument never gets us anywhere, but trying to flatten it at every step is quadratic in the length of the list. Reducing more eagerly makes simplifying the right-hand type linear in its length. Testing also indicated that the early reduction should *not* use the flat-cache, but that the later reduction *should*. (Although the effect was not large.) Hence the Bool argument to try_to_reduce. To me (SLPJ) this seems odd; I get that eager reduction usually succeeds; and if don't use the cache for eager reduction, we will miss most of the opportunities for using it at all. More exploration would be good here. At the end, once we've got a flat rhs, we extend the flatten-cache to record the result. Doing so can save lots of work when the same redex shows up more than once. Note that we record the link from the redex all the way to its *final* value, not just the single step reduction. Interestingly, using the flat-cache for the first reduction resulted in an increase in allocations of about 3% for the four T9872x tests. However, using the flat-cache in the later reduction is a similar gain. I (Richard E) don't currently (Dec '14) have any knowledge as to *why* these facts are true. ************************************************************************ * * Flattening a type variable * * ********************************************************************* -} -- | The result of flattening a tyvar "one step". data FlattenTvResult = FTRNotFollowed -- ^ The inert set doesn't make the tyvar equal to anything else | FTRFollowed TcType Coercion -- ^ The tyvar flattens to a not-necessarily flat other type. -- co :: new type ~r old type, where the role is determined by -- the FlattenEnv flattenTyVar :: TyVar -> FlatM (Xi, Coercion) flattenTyVar tv = do { mb_yes <- flatten_tyvar1 tv ; case mb_yes of FTRFollowed ty1 co1 -- Recur -> do { (ty2, co2) <- flatten_one ty1 -- ; traceFlat "flattenTyVar2" (ppr tv $$ ppr ty2) ; return (ty2, co2 `mkTransCo` co1) } FTRNotFollowed -- Done -> do { let orig_kind = tyVarKind tv ; (_new_kind, kind_co) <- flattenKinds $ flatten_one orig_kind ; let Pair _ zonked_kind = coercionKind kind_co -- NB: kind_co :: _new_kind ~ zonked_kind -- But zonked_kind is not necessarily the same as orig_kind -- because that may have filled-in metavars. -- Moreover the returned Xi type must be well-kinded -- (e.g. in canEqTyVarTyVar we use getCastedTyVar_maybe) -- If you remove it, then e.g. dependent/should_fail/T11407 panics -- See also Note [Flattening] -- An alternative would to use (zonkTcType orig_kind), -- but some simple measurements suggest that's a little slower ; let tv' = setTyVarKind tv zonked_kind tv_ty' = mkTyVarTy tv' ty' = tv_ty' `mkCastTy` mkSymCo kind_co ; role <- getRole ; return (ty', mkReflCo role tv_ty' `mkCoherenceLeftCo` mkSymCo kind_co) } } flatten_tyvar1 :: TcTyVar -> FlatM FlattenTvResult -- "Flattening" a type variable means to apply the substitution to it -- Specifically, look up the tyvar in -- * the internal MetaTyVar box -- * the inerts -- See also the documentation for FlattenTvResult flatten_tyvar1 tv = do { mb_ty <- liftTcS $ isFilledMetaTyVar_maybe tv ; case mb_ty of Just ty -> do { traceFlat "Following filled tyvar" (ppr tv <+> equals <+> ppr ty) ; role <- getRole ; return (FTRFollowed ty (mkReflCo role ty)) } ; Nothing -> do { traceFlat "Unfilled tyvar" (ppr tv) ; fr <- getFlavourRole ; flatten_tyvar2 tv fr } } flatten_tyvar2 :: TcTyVar -> CtFlavourRole -> FlatM FlattenTvResult -- The tyvar is not a filled-in meta-tyvar -- Try in the inert equalities -- See Definition [Applying a generalised substitution] in TcSMonad -- See Note [Stability of flattening] in TcSMonad flatten_tyvar2 tv fr@(_, eq_rel) = do { ieqs <- liftTcS $ getInertEqs ; mode <- getMode ; case lookupDVarEnv ieqs tv of Just (ct:_) -- If the first doesn't work, -- the subsequent ones won't either | CTyEqCan { cc_ev = ctev, cc_tyvar = tv , cc_rhs = rhs_ty, cc_eq_rel = ct_eq_rel } <- ct , let ct_fr = (ctEvFlavour ctev, ct_eq_rel) , ct_fr `eqCanRewriteFR` fr -- This is THE key call of eqCanRewriteFR -> do { traceFlat "Following inert tyvar" (ppr mode <+> ppr tv <+> equals <+> ppr rhs_ty $$ ppr ctev) ; let rewrite_co1 = mkSymCo (ctEvCoercion ctev) rewrite_co = case (ct_eq_rel, eq_rel) of (ReprEq, _rel) -> ASSERT( _rel == ReprEq ) -- if this ASSERT fails, then -- eqCanRewriteFR answered incorrectly rewrite_co1 (NomEq, NomEq) -> rewrite_co1 (NomEq, ReprEq) -> mkSubCo rewrite_co1 ; return (FTRFollowed rhs_ty rewrite_co) } -- NB: ct is Derived then fmode must be also, hence -- we are not going to touch the returned coercion -- so ctEvCoercion is fine. _other -> return FTRNotFollowed } {- Note [An alternative story for the inert substitution] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ (This entire note is just background, left here in case we ever want to return the the previous state of affairs) We used (GHC 7.8) to have this story for the inert substitution inert_eqs * 'a' is not in fvs(ty) * They are *inert* in the weaker sense that there is no infinite chain of (i1 `eqCanRewrite` i2), (i2 `eqCanRewrite` i3), etc This means that flattening must be recursive, but it does allow [G] a ~ [b] [G] b ~ Maybe c This avoids "saturating" the Givens, which can save a modest amount of work. It is easy to implement, in TcInteract.kick_out, by only kicking out an inert only if (a) the work item can rewrite the inert AND (b) the inert cannot rewrite the work item This is significantly harder to think about. It can save a LOT of work in occurs-check cases, but we don't care about them much. Trac #5837 is an example; all the constraints here are Givens [G] a ~ TF (a,Int) --> work TF (a,Int) ~ fsk inert fsk ~ a ---> work fsk ~ (TF a, TF Int) inert fsk ~ a ---> work a ~ (TF a, TF Int) inert fsk ~ a ---> (attempting to flatten (TF a) so that it does not mention a work TF a ~ fsk2 inert a ~ (fsk2, TF Int) inert fsk ~ (fsk2, TF Int) ---> (substitute for a) work TF (fsk2, TF Int) ~ fsk2 inert a ~ (fsk2, TF Int) inert fsk ~ (fsk2, TF Int) ---> (top-level reduction, re-orient) work fsk2 ~ (TF fsk2, TF Int) inert a ~ (fsk2, TF Int) inert fsk ~ (fsk2, TF Int) ---> (attempt to flatten (TF fsk2) to get rid of fsk2 work TF fsk2 ~ fsk3 work fsk2 ~ (fsk3, TF Int) inert a ~ (fsk2, TF Int) inert fsk ~ (fsk2, TF Int) ---> work TF fsk2 ~ fsk3 inert fsk2 ~ (fsk3, TF Int) inert a ~ ((fsk3, TF Int), TF Int) inert fsk ~ ((fsk3, TF Int), TF Int) Because the incoming given rewrites all the inert givens, we get more and more duplication in the inert set. But this really only happens in pathalogical casee, so we don't care. ************************************************************************ * * Unflattening * * ************************************************************************ An unflattening example: [W] F a ~ alpha flattens to [W] F a ~ fmv (CFunEqCan) [W] fmv ~ alpha (CTyEqCan) We must solve both! -} unflattenWanteds :: Cts -> Cts -> TcS Cts unflattenWanteds tv_eqs funeqs = do { tclvl <- getTcLevel ; traceTcS "Unflattening" $ braces $ vcat [ text "Funeqs =" <+> pprCts funeqs , text "Tv eqs =" <+> pprCts tv_eqs ] -- Step 1: unflatten the CFunEqCans, except if that causes an occurs check -- Occurs check: consider [W] alpha ~ [F alpha] -- ==> (flatten) [W] F alpha ~ fmv, [W] alpha ~ [fmv] -- ==> (unify) [W] F [fmv] ~ fmv -- See Note [Unflatten using funeqs first] ; funeqs <- foldrBagM unflatten_funeq emptyCts funeqs ; traceTcS "Unflattening 1" $ braces (pprCts funeqs) -- Step 2: unify the tv_eqs, if possible ; tv_eqs <- foldrBagM (unflatten_eq tclvl) emptyCts tv_eqs ; traceTcS "Unflattening 2" $ braces (pprCts tv_eqs) -- Step 3: fill any remaining fmvs with fresh unification variables ; funeqs <- mapBagM finalise_funeq funeqs ; traceTcS "Unflattening 3" $ braces (pprCts funeqs) -- Step 4: remove any tv_eqs that look like ty ~ ty ; tv_eqs <- foldrBagM finalise_eq emptyCts tv_eqs ; let all_flat = tv_eqs `andCts` funeqs ; traceTcS "Unflattening done" $ braces (pprCts all_flat) ; return all_flat } where ---------------- unflatten_funeq :: Ct -> Cts -> TcS Cts unflatten_funeq ct@(CFunEqCan { cc_fun = tc, cc_tyargs = xis , cc_fsk = fmv, cc_ev = ev }) rest = do { -- fmv should be an un-filled flatten meta-tv; -- we now fix its final value by filling it, being careful -- to observe the occurs check. Zonking will eliminate it -- altogether in due course rhs' <- zonkTcType (mkTyConApp tc xis) ; case occCheckExpand fmv rhs' of Just rhs'' -- Normal case: fill the tyvar -> do { setReflEvidence ev NomEq rhs'' ; unflattenFmv fmv rhs'' ; return rest } Nothing -> -- Occurs check return (ct `consCts` rest) } unflatten_funeq other_ct _ = pprPanic "unflatten_funeq" (ppr other_ct) ---------------- finalise_funeq :: Ct -> TcS Ct finalise_funeq (CFunEqCan { cc_fsk = fmv, cc_ev = ev }) = do { demoteUnfilledFmv fmv ; return (mkNonCanonical ev) } finalise_funeq ct = pprPanic "finalise_funeq" (ppr ct) ---------------- unflatten_eq :: TcLevel -> Ct -> Cts -> TcS Cts unflatten_eq tclvl ct@(CTyEqCan { cc_ev = ev, cc_tyvar = tv , cc_rhs = rhs, cc_eq_rel = eq_rel }) rest | isFmvTyVar tv -- Previously these fmvs were untouchable, -- but now they are touchable -- NB: unlike unflattenFmv, filling a fmv here /does/ -- bump the unification count; it is "improvement" -- Note [Unflattening can force the solver to iterate] = ASSERT2( tyVarKind tv `eqType` typeKind rhs, ppr ct ) -- CTyEqCan invariant should ensure this is true do { is_filled <- isFilledMetaTyVar tv ; elim <- case is_filled of False -> do { traceTcS "unflatten_eq 2" (ppr ct) ; tryFill ev eq_rel tv rhs } True -> do { traceTcS "unflatten_eq 2" (ppr ct) ; try_fill_rhs ev eq_rel tclvl tv rhs } ; if elim then return rest else return (ct `consCts` rest) } | otherwise = return (ct `consCts` rest) unflatten_eq _ ct _ = pprPanic "unflatten_irred" (ppr ct) ---------------- try_fill_rhs ev eq_rel tclvl lhs_tv rhs -- Constraint is lhs_tv ~ rhs_tv, -- and lhs_tv is filled, so try RHS | Just (rhs_tv, co) <- getCastedTyVar_maybe rhs -- co :: kind(rhs_tv) ~ kind(lhs_tv) , isFmvTyVar rhs_tv || (isTouchableMetaTyVar tclvl rhs_tv && not (isSigTyVar rhs_tv)) -- LHS is a filled fmv, and so is a type -- family application, which a SigTv should -- not unify with = do { is_filled <- isFilledMetaTyVar rhs_tv ; if is_filled then return False else tryFill ev eq_rel rhs_tv (mkTyVarTy lhs_tv `mkCastTy` mkSymCo co) } | otherwise = return False ---------------- finalise_eq :: Ct -> Cts -> TcS Cts finalise_eq (CTyEqCan { cc_ev = ev, cc_tyvar = tv , cc_rhs = rhs, cc_eq_rel = eq_rel }) rest | isFmvTyVar tv = do { ty1 <- zonkTcTyVar tv ; rhs' <- zonkTcType rhs ; if ty1 `tcEqType` rhs' then do { setReflEvidence ev eq_rel rhs' ; return rest } else return (mkNonCanonical ev `consCts` rest) } | otherwise = return (mkNonCanonical ev `consCts` rest) finalise_eq ct _ = pprPanic "finalise_irred" (ppr ct) tryFill :: CtEvidence -> EqRel -> TcTyVar -> TcType -> TcS Bool -- (tryFill tv rhs ev) assumes 'tv' is an /un-filled/ MetaTv -- If tv does not appear in 'rhs', it set tv := rhs, -- binds the evidence (which should be a CtWanted) to Refl<rhs> -- and return True. Otherwise returns False tryFill ev eq_rel tv rhs = ASSERT2( not (isGiven ev), ppr ev ) do { rhs' <- zonkTcType rhs ; case tcGetTyVar_maybe rhs' of { Just tv' | tv == tv' -> do { setReflEvidence ev eq_rel rhs ; return True } ; _other -> do { case occCheckExpand tv rhs' of Just rhs'' -- Normal case: fill the tyvar -> do { setReflEvidence ev eq_rel rhs'' ; unifyTyVar tv rhs'' ; return True } Nothing -> -- Occurs check return False } } } setReflEvidence :: CtEvidence -> EqRel -> TcType -> TcS () setReflEvidence ev eq_rel rhs = setEvBindIfWanted ev (EvCoercion refl_co) where refl_co = mkTcReflCo (eqRelRole eq_rel) rhs {- Note [Unflatten using funeqs first] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ [W] G a ~ Int [W] F (G a) ~ G a do not want to end up with [W] F Int ~ Int because that might actually hold! Better to end up with the two above unsolved constraints. The flat form will be G a ~ fmv1 (CFunEqCan) F fmv1 ~ fmv2 (CFunEqCan) fmv1 ~ Int (CTyEqCan) fmv1 ~ fmv2 (CTyEqCan) Flatten using the fun-eqs first. -}